481,000,000 miles


508,000,000 miles

Semi-major axis

5.204267 AU




11.8618 years

Synodic period

398.88 days

Average orbital speed

13.07 km/s

Mean anomaly

18.818 degrees


1.305 degrees to ecliptic, 6.09 degrees to Sun's equator, 0.32 degrees to invariable plane

Longitude of ascending node

100.492 degrees

Argument of perihelion

275.066 degrees



Physical characteristics
Mean radius

69,911 km



Surface area

121.9 Earths


317.8 Earths

Mean density

1.326 g/cm3

Equatorial surface gravity

2.528 g

Escape velocity

59.5 km/s

Sidereal rotation period

9 hrs, 55 mins, 30 secs

Equatorial rotation velocity

12.6 km/s (45,300 km/h)

Axial tilt

3.13 degrees

North pole right ascension

17 hrs, 52 mins, 14 secs

North pole declination

64.496 degrees


0.343 (Bond), 0.52 (geom.)

Surface temp.

112 to 165 K

Apparent magnitude
Angular diameter


Surface pressure

20 to 200 kPa (cloud layers)


89.8 + 2.0% hydrogen, 10.2 + 2.0% helium, 0.3% methane 0.026%, ammonia, 0.003% hydrogen deuteride, 0.0006% ethane 0.0004% water

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the 2nd largest in the Solar System, after Tyche. It is a large gas giant with a diameter 11 times greater than Earth's and is composed entirely of liquid hydrogen and helium. The only solid part in Jupiter's inside is a possible core about the size of Earth. Jupiter orbits the Sun in 12 years, but it has a fast day which lasts 9 hours and 55 minutes. This fast spin gives the planet's atmosphere its striped appearance and creates cloud bands. The cloud bands rotate around the planet at high speeds but in 2009, a cloud band dissapeared from the turbulent atmosphere. The most prominent feature in Jupiter's atmosphere is the Great Red Spot, a large red storm in the southern hemisphere which is large enough to engulf two earths. This planet also has its own family of 4 planets, discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610: Europa, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto.


Gravitational PullEdit

Some astronomers believe Jupiter catapults showers of passing comets towards the Inner Solar Sytem. One of these showers may have caused the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction. In the mid-1900s psychiatrist Immanuel Velikovsky wrote that Jupiter might've been responsible for the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.

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