The Universe S1 E01, Secrets of the Sun44:08

The Universe S1 E01, Secrets of the Sun

The Sun is one of over 100 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The sun is made up of entirely gas. The sun is the nearest star to Earth. Nine planets revolve around the sun in paths called orbits. 1.3 million Earths can fit inside the sun. Earth travels around the sun at an approximate distance of 92,960,000 miles from it. Hydrogen is the sun's fuel. It uses about 4 million tons of hydrogen every minute. The part of the sun we see has an average temperature of about 5800 K. Scientists measure star temperatures in Kelvin. One degrees Fahrenheit or 15 million K.

The sun formed about 4.6 billion years ago, and has enough hydrogen to last for another 5-6 billion years. When the hydrogen in our Sun is burned up, the temperatures lowen and the star will expand into a size about 30-80x bigger than its normal. Our nearest star, will enter its red giant phase and destroy the Earth! But not to worry, because this will happen in billions of years!

Coronal holesEdit

Discussion of a coronal hole on the Sun47:12

Discussion of a coronal hole on the Sun

Coronal holes refer to the formless dark areas in Sun imagery, depicting colder areas in the corona. Coronal hole sizes and population usually corresponds with the solar cycle. These colder regions generally discharge solar winds at a speed about twice the average.

Coronal mass ejectionEdit

NOVA, Secrets of the Sun51:21

NOVA, Secrets of the Sun

Coronal mass ejection (CME) is an unusually large release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona. CMEs typically reach Earth one to five days after leaving the Sun. Humans at high altitudes, as in airplanes or space stations, risk exposure to relatively intense cosmic rays. If a concentrated ejection is directed towards Earth, the shock wave of the traveling mass of solar energetic particles can cause geomagnetic storms that may disrupt Earth's magnetosphere. The Space Weather Prediction Center continually monitors and forecasts Earth's space environment, including CME impact.

Relation to EarthEdit

The Earth's approximate distance from the Sun is 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) or (149.9 million km) that is why life and water exist on the planet. Over billions of years ago, the Earth was much closer to the Sun than now so no life survived there, then the Sun got bigger (see: solar life cycle) and the planets moved out and created their own orbital paths around it. The atmosphere and surface of our planet cooled and condensed to form the crust and rivers and oceans started appearing, and then life formed! Nobody can go to the Sun because it's too hot for visitors! Asteroids(minor planets), comets, planets, meteroids and dwarf planets orbit the Sun, one of the planets orbiting it is Earth!


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